# Zoology

# Ants

# Apes

# Bees

Usually (but not always) when you see multiple swarm clusters like that, a hive has sent out more than one swarm, each with it's own queen. The primary, largest swarm will contain the original hive queen while the others will contain virgin queens. If they happen to combine into one cluster, the queens will likely fight and only one will survive to lead the swarm.

The queen never leaves the swarm cluster, and has no bearing on the decision of hive location. The swarm sends out scout workers who inspect locations for suitability and report back to the cluster. Through a voting process, the workers decide and move as one to the permanent home.

If you're interested in this topic (which is fascinating), there is a great book on it called 'Honeybee Democracy' by the bee researcher Thomas Seeley.

HN

# Birds

# Hummingbirds vs Sunbirds

I saw a bird in Singapore which I mistook for a Hummingbird. It flies almost identically - hovering in one place, flapping furiously. After a quick search, I found it was a Crimson Sunbird.

Crimson sunbirds and other sunbirds are often mistaken for hummingbirds due to their similar appearance in terms of size and colouring. However, this is actually a result of convergent evolution, as both fulfil similar ecological niches by feeding on nectar and therefore play a key role in pollination. Sunbirds and hummingbirds are not closely related at all - hummingbirds' closest cousins are actually swifts and nightjars3 . In addition, sunbirds and hummingbirds do not coexist anywhere in the world. Sunbirds are found in Asia, Africa and Australia while hummingbirds are found only in North and South America4 . So the next time you're confused as to whether a bird you've seen is a sunbird or a hummingbird, all you have to do is know which continent you're on!

Source

# Ravens

# Shrimp

# Dolphins

# Earthworms

  • The Intelligence of Earthworms: https://hn.premii.com/#/comments/23560086

# Eeels

  • Eel life history https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eel_life_history
  • Where Do Eels Come From? https://hn.premii.com/#/comments/23265000

# Octopus

# Rats

# Tortoises

# Whales